Purpose Of Financial Modeling – Why Is It So Popular

Financial modeling is one of the skills in financial analysis that is most in demand but also one of the least understood. Accounting, financial, and business data are combined in financial modeling to predict a company’s future performance. Financial modeling is a method for estimating a project’s or company’s financial performance using all relevant factors, growth assumptions, and risk assumptions, and then examining the results. The user can quickly become aware of all the variables involved in economic forecasting thanks to it. In this article, we will be talking in detail about financial modeling, the purpose of financial modeling, where and how it is used, and how to build one.

Purpose Of Financial Modeling

Understanding Financial Modelling?

Building a model from the ground up or updating an existing model with newly accessible data are two different types of financial modeling. All of the financial scenarios mentioned above are, as you can see, intricate and unstable. The purpose of financial modeling enables the user to comprehend every element of the intricate scenario in great detail.

In investment banking, it is used to forecast the potential future financial performance of a company by making pertinent assumptions about how the company or a specific project is expected to perform in the ensuing years, for example, how much cash flow a project is likely to produce within five years of its inception.

It is simple to work on various specific Model components without influencing the entire structure and avoiding costly mistakes after knowing the purpose of financial modeling. It is advantageous when the inputs are erratic and subject to change as a result of freshly learned knowledge. There is some flexibility with the framework while working on financial modeling, provided that the structures are valid, of course.

Even if it seems difficult, it can be acquired with consistent effort and the right knowledge.

A Financial Model is What?

In order to forecast a company’s financial performance into the future, a financial model is just a spreadsheet, typically created in Microsoft Excel. An income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement, and supporting schedules must be prepared for the forecast, which is often based on historical performance data and projections for the company (known as a 3-statement model). From there, more complex models can be created, such as discounted cash flow models, leveraged buyout models, mergers and acquisitions models, and sensitivity analysis models.

  • To anticipate a company’s future performance, financial modeling combines accounting, finance, and business indicators.
  • To accurately predict a company’s future financial performance is the basic purpose of financial modeling.
  • The purpose of financial Modeling can be helpful for valuing businesses and deciding whether to raise capital, expand organically, or buy other businesses.


What is the purpose of Financial Modeling?

Financial models come in a variety of forms with a variety of applications. Whether internal or external to the organization, decision-making and financial analysis employs the results of a financial model. The purpose of financial modeling are as follows:

  • Raising money (via loan or equity)
  • Making purchases of businesses or assets
  • Organic growth of the business (e.g., opening new stores, entering new markets, etc.)
  • Selling or releasing firm divisions and assets
  • Planned and foreseeable future (planning for the years ahead)
  • Budgeting for investments (priority of which projects to invest in)
  • A business’s worth
  • Analysis of financial statements and ratio analysis
  • Accounting for management
  • To show the scope of the market
  • to illustrate a route to profitability
  • To describe the business strategy
  • To make it easier to value the business
  • Last but not least, to estimate the required investment

With so many intricate business models in the modern corporate era, financial modeling has emerged as one of the most promising job options.

The purpose of Financial modeling is to be applied at various phases in business, financial, and accounting metrics to produce a mathematical representation.

As a result, taking a financial modeling course is now essential, especially for freshmen looking to enter the corporate world.

For all kinds of enterprises, financial modeling is a highly appreciated instrument that offers numerous advantages.

Now let’s talk about the range of financial modeling:

  • The scope and demand for financial modeling have grown significantly, and banks, credit rating agencies, equities research firms, and project finance are now hiring Certified Financial Modelers. Because the financial model is utilized to conduct financial analysis and the purpose of financial modeling is to make important decisions, it is regarded as the core area.
  • By choosing a Financial Modeling course, you may differentiate yourself from the competition and offer precise and pertinent knowledge on the sector.
  • Due to the increased demand, businesses now favor individuals with experience in financial modeling over those without it.


Practical Illustration

The finest financial models give consumers a list of fundamental presumptions. Sales growth is one line item that is frequently predicted. Gross sales growth is measured as a rise (or decrease) from one quarter to the next in terms of gross sales. A financial model just requires these two inputs to determine sales growth.

The financial modeler creates two cells: cell A for sales from the previous year and cell B for sales from the current year. A formula that divides the difference between cells A and B by cell A is utilized in the third cell, cell C. The growth formula is as follows. The formula is hard-coded into the model in Cell C. The user can alter the input cells in column A and column B.

The model’s objective in this scenario is to forecast sales growth in the event that a specific action is made or a potential event occurs.

This is obviously just one use of financial modeling in the real world. In the end, potential growth is what a stock analyst is interested in. Any element that influences or may influence that growth can be modeled.

Additionally, when buying stocks, it’s crucial to compare different organizations. An investor might choose among many industry competitors with the aid of several models.

What Details Should a Financial Model Contain?

Sections on assumptions and drivers, an income statement, a balance sheet, a cash flow statement, supporting schedules, valuations, sensitivity analysis, charts, and graphs should all be included in a usable and understandable model.

What Kinds of Companies Employ Financial Modeling?

The purpose of Financial modeling is manifolds. It is used by experts in a wide range of industries. Here are only a few illustrations: Financial models are used by institutions for private equity, portfolio management, and research. Bankers use them for sales and trading, stock research, and both commercial and investment banking. Public accountants use them for due diligence and appraisals.

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A Financial Model is validated in what way?

Financial modeling inaccuracies can result in costly errors. Financial modeling might be provided to an outsider as a result to have the data it contains verified. Banks and other financial institutions, project promoters, companies looking for funding, equity houses, and others may request the model validation to reassure the end-user that the calculations and assumptions the model’s assumptions are true, and that the model’s outputs are trustworthy.

Which Software is ideal for Financial Modeling?

It can be quite difficult to predict a company’s activities in the future. Every company is different and needs a highly specialized set of calculations and assumptions. Because it is the most adaptable and adjustable spreadsheet application available, Excel is used. The expertise of Excel is typically more widespread, but other software tools could be excessively stiff and specialized.

Who creates the Financial Modeling Systems?

  • Analysts of equity research and investment banking
  • Financial Analysts
  • Analysts of risk
  • Data Scientists
  • Portfolio Directors
  • Investors \ management/Entrepreneurs
  • Modeling is primarily used to establish fair forecasts, prices for markets/products, asset or enterprise valuation (Discounted Cash Flow Analysis, Relative Valuation), the share price of companies, synergies, effects of mergers and acquisitions on the companies, LBO, corporate finance models, option pricing, etc.


How can Financial Modeling be learned?

Practice is the key to mastering financial modeling. Building financial models require years of experience, and you truly have to learn by doing. Reading equity study papers can be beneficial since they provide a benchmark against which to compare your outcomes. One of the best ways to get practice is to use historical financial data from an established business, project it into the future, determine the net present value per share, and then compare your results to the share prices that are currently on the market or the target prices listed in equity research reports.

A professional financial modeling training course can provide a strong foundational understanding of the necessary ideas and abilities.

Examples of Financial Modeling

Examples of financial modeling range in complexity and kind depending on the circumstances. They are frequently employed in sensitivity analyses, comparative analyses, and valuations. Other applications include risk prediction, pricing strategy, synergy effects, etc. Different examples each cater to a unique group of users, needs, and specialties.

The examples that are frequently used in the financial industry are as follows:

1. Financial Modeling using Three Statements in Full:

The full economic picture of a corporation is represented by this kind of financial model, together with projections. The most common and comprehensive form is this one.

The model is a structure made up of the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement of a corporation connected together, as the name would imply.

The facts are supported by schedules as well. (Schedules for depreciation, debt repayment, calculating working capital, etc.)

The unique feature of this Model is its interconnectedness, which enables the user to modify the inputs whenever and wherever they are needed, with the result that the changes are immediately reflected across the Model.

This function aids in a complete comprehension of all the model’s elements and their interactions.

With the provided set of inputs, the practical usefulness of this model are in forecasting and understanding trends.

The historical model can go back as far as the company’s founding, and forecasts can go up to 2-3 years depending on the necessity.

2. Model for Discounted Cash Flows (DCF):

The Discounted Cash Flow analysis method, which makes use of the Time Value of Money idea, is the most extensively utilized valuation technique in the financial sector.

The theory underlying this approach states that the value of a firm is equal to the net present value (NPV) of all of the company’s future cash flows, discounted back to the present.

  • The expected future cash flows are discounted by the discounting factor. Deriving the “discounting factor” is one key component of this approach. The results can be drastically altered by even a small calculation error when it comes to the discounting factor.
  • The + [Cost of Debt *% of Debt * (1-Tax Rate)] is typically used.
  • The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is available at [url=https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/]
  • Average Weighted Cost of Capital (WACC)
  • Future cash flows are discounted using a company’s (WACC) as the discounting factor.
  • When determining if a company’s stock is overvalued or undervalued, DCF is useful. This turns out to be a significant deciding element in investment-related situations.
  • It makes judging the allure of an investing offer more straightforward. The option is profitable or the agreement is unprofitable if the NPV of the total of future cash flows exceeds its current value.
  • The accuracy of a DCF model is crucial since it is based on Free Cash Flow, which eliminates all expense considerations and concentrates exclusively on the company’s freely available cash.
  • Due to the fact that DCF entails the projection of future cash flows, it is typically best suited for handling the finances of large firms with stable growth rates and financials.

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3. Leveraged Buyout (LBO) Model

In a leveraged buyout transaction, a company purchases other businesses by financing the acquisition with debt. The acquired company’s assets and operations generate cash flows that are utilized to pay down the loan and associated fees.

As a result, LBO is regarded as a very hostile/aggressive method of acquisition because the target firm is not included in the deal’s approval process.

  • Private equity firms with a lot of cash are typically seen participating in LBOs. They use a combination of loans and equity to buy the business, with debt making up over seventy percent of the total. After a few years, they sell the business for a healthy profit (3-5 years).
  • An LBO model’s goal is to ascertain how much profit may be made from a deal like this.
  • These models are more complex since there are numerous ways to raise debt, each with a different interest rate.
  • The stages involved in creating an LBO model are as follows:
  • the acquisition price is determined using the forward trading multiple of EBITDA
  • the acquisition’s debt vs equity funding ratio
  • Creating an income statement for the future and calculating EBITDA
  • computation of cumulative FCF during the whole LBO duration
  • Using the IRR, calculate the final exit values and returns.

4. Acquisition and merger (M&A) model:

  • The M&A model assists in determining the impact of a merger or acquisition on the newly formed company’s earnings per share following the completion of the reorganization and how it compares to the present EPS.
  • The deal is referred to as “accretive” if the EPS grows overall, and “dilutive” if the EPS decreases relative to the current EPS.
  • The size and nature of operations of the companies in question influence the model’s complexity.
  • Companies that provide corporate financing and investment banking typically employ these methods.
  • The following procedures are used to create an M&A model:
  • valuing Target and Acquirer as independent companies
  • Target and Acquirer Valued with Synergies
  • preparing a first offer for the target company
  • assessing the ability of the combined firms to finance the deal
  • Cash and debt should be adjusted based on the transaction’s ability to be financed.
  • combining net income and determining an accretive/dilutive scenario to calculate EPS.

5. Sum-of-the-parts (SOTP)

  • Using a single valuation approach to value a large conglomerate presents a number of difficulties.
  • Therefore, valuation for the various portions is done independently using appropriate valuation techniques for each element.
  • The valuation of the conglomerate as a whole is obtained by adding the sum of the valuations for each part.
  • The “Sum-of-the-Parts” valuation approach is referred to as such.
  • In most cases, SOTP is appropriate for spin-offs, mergers, equity carve-outs, etc.

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Prerequisites to Study Financial Modeling

Only when a financial model is producing reliable and accurate findings will it be successful. One should possess the requisite set of abilities to prepare a model effectively. Let’s look at what those abilities are:

  1. Recognizing Accounting Concepts

A company’s or market’s financial data are used in the pure financial document “Building it.” International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), US GAAP, and other specialized accounting principles are examples of global financial industry standards. The presentation of financial data and events is kept consistent thanks to these principles. To keep accuracy and quality while getting ready to construct an excel model, it is crucial to comprehend these guidelines and notions.

  1. Skills in Excel

The main source of funding An application like MS Excel is used for modeling, which is the process of creating a model. It involves a variety of intricate calculations scattered across numerous tabs that are linked to illustrate their relationships. When creating a model, having a solid working knowledge of Excel’s formulas, keyboard shortcuts, presentation options, VBA Macros, etc. is essential. The analyst has an advantage over other workers by keeping up with these skills.

  1. Financial model statements that are connected

There should be connections between three-statement financial modeling. The interlinking enables crucial Model data to move from one statement to the next, completing their interrelationship and providing us with a complete picture of the company’s financial status. An illustration of linking

1) The Cash in the Balance Sheet must be connected to the Net Change in Cash (from the Cash Flow Statement).

2) Retained Earnings in the Statement of Stock Holder’s Equity should be connected to Net Income from the Income statement.

  1. Forecast

The capacity to predict financial Since the goal of modeling is often to comprehend the future scenario of any financial issue, it is crucial. Both art and science go into forecasting. An analyst can get a good indication of how appealing the investment or firm will be in the future by making plausible assumptions while projecting the data. The dependability of a model is increased by strong forecasting abilities.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is financial modeling?

Financial modeling is a process that uses historical data to create a quantitative representation of a financial situation. It is used to project a company’s future performance, analyze the impact of different scenarios, and make informed business decisions.

  1. What are the components of a financial model?

A financial model typically includes an income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement, as well as assumptions, calculations, and projections.

  1. What is the purpose of financial modeling?

Financial modeling is used for a variety of purposes, including budgeting, forecasting, valuing a company, analyzing the impact of proposed transactions, and assessing the performance of a portfolio.

  1. What skills are required for financial modeling?

Financial modeling requires a mastery of key financial skills, including financial analysis, accounting, and mathematics. Additionally, familiarity with Microsoft Excel is essential.

  1. How long does it take to build a financial model?

The length of time needed to build a financial model depends on the complexity of the model and the skill level of the modeler. Generally, it can take anywhere from a few hours to a few days to build a financial model.

  1. What is the best way to learn financial modeling in-depth?

The best way to learn financial modeling is to gain hands-on experience. This can be done through internships, courses, or practice projects. Additionally, there are numerous online resources available, such as books and tutorials.


In addition to analyzing a company’s financial performance, the purpose of financial modeling is also to assess the impact of potential changes in the economy on a company’s financial performance. Financial models are used to assess the impact of potential changes in interest rates, exchange rates, and inflation on a company’s performance. Overall, financial modeling is an important tool used in the financial industry to help make decisions about investments, valuations, capital raising, mergers, and acquisitions. The purpose of Financial modeling is to analyze a company’s current and future performance and to assess the impact of potential decisions on a company’s financial performance. Financial models are also used to assess the creditworthiness of a company and to assess the impact of potential changes in the economy on a company’s performance.

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